Грамматика Английского Языка - Maxlang
Домик, знак означающий ссылка ведёт на главную страницу Maxlang.ru Благотворительность Тренировать слова
Грамматика > Английский язык

10.09.2022 Обновлено 30.10.2023

Грамматика Английского Языка

Грамматика английского языка в мельчайших подробностях.

to be - вспомогательный глагол

лучшие турецкие сериалы
<< за всё время >>

Глагол to be в положительных предложениях.

am, is, are

We use to be in the present. Мы используем to be в настоящем.

We use to be in sentences where we don't have main verbs actions. Мы используем to be в предложениях, где мы не имеем главных глаголов действий.

I am cold. My sister is 29. Ann and I are good friends. Your keys are on the table.

Глагол to be в отрицательных предложениях
to be
He, She, Itisnot
We, You, Theyare

I am tired but I'm not hungry. Tom isn't interested in politics. Those people aren't English. It is sunny today, but it's not warm.


to be в вопросительных предложениях.

We use to be in the begining of the sentence in questions. Мы используем to be в начале предложения в вопросах.

Am - I?

Is - he?, she?, it?

Are - we?, you?, they?

Am I late? Is your mother at home? Are your parents at home? Is it cold in your room?

To be пишется в предложениях, после подлежащих.

When we have in sentences such questions as where?, what?, how?, who?, why? we use to be after them.

Когда мы имеем в предложениях такие вопросыб как where?, what?, how?, who?, why? мы используем to be (am, is, are), после них.

Where is your mother? What colour is your car? How are your parents?

this, that, these, those - demonstrative pronouns (указательное местоимение)

This and these we use when something is near to as. This и these мы используем, когда что-либо вблизи нас.

That and those we use when something is at distance from as. That и those мы используем, когда что-то на расстоянии от нас.

This and that we use with singular noun. This и that мы используем c существительными единственного числа.

These and those we use with plural noun. These и those мы используем c существительными множественного числа.

I'm sorry I forgot to phone you - That's all right. You're a teacher? aren't you? - Yes, that's right. Is that - the other person.

We use this is when we introduce people. Мы используем this is, когда мы представляем людей.

ТОП 10 ЯЗЫКОВ << смотреть >>

Present simple

We use present simple tense for repeated actions in the present, for actions which happen ingeneral. Настоящее простое время мы используем для повторяющихся действий в настоящем, для действий, которые происходят в общем.

Structure - Структура Subject (I, we, you, they) + verb Subject (he, she, it) + verb + -s, -es

I work_ in a shop. My brother works in a bank. Linda lives in London. Her parents live in Scotland. My brothers have (take) a shower everyday. My brother_ has (take) a shower everyday. The Earth goes round the Sun.

Subject + never, often, sometimes, usually + present simple

She always arrives at work early. I usually go_ to work by car.

Present simple negative

Subject (I, we, you, they) + don't + infinitive - настоящая форма глагола

Subject (he, she, it) + doesn't + infinitive - настоящая форма глагола

I don't drink tea. She doesn't drink coffee. Paula doesn't usually have breakfast.

Do you ...? (present simple questions)

Do + subject (I, we, you, they) + infinitive

Does + subject (he, she, it) + infinitive

Do you play tennis? Yes, I do or No, I don't. Do your parents speak English? Yes, they do or No, they don't. Does George work hard? Yes, he does or No, he doesn't. How much does it cost to fly to Rome?

a, an indefinite articles (неопределенный артикль)

We use a, an before singular countable noun. Мы используем a, an перед существительным единственного числа. We use "a" before cousonant letters. Мы используем "a" перед согласными буквами. We use "an" before vowel letters. Мы используем "an" перед гласными буквами.

Exeptions - исключения

an hour, a university, a European

After the word another we use singular noun. После слова another мы используем существительное единственного числа.

I want another book. I want ather books.

We use a, an when we say what a thing or a person is. Мы используем a, an, когда говорим что есть что или кто есть кто.

The Sun is a star. Football is a game.

We use a, an for jobs. Мы используем a, an с профессиями.

Present continuons

We use present continuons tense for actions which are happening at the moment. Мы используем настоящее продолжительное время с действиями, которые происходят в данный момент.

Subject + to be (not) + verb + ing

to be + subject + verb + ing?

Chris is writing a letter. She is not eating. I am working. We are having dinner. It's not raining. Are you feeling well? No, I am not or Yes, I am Is it raining? Yes, it's or No, it's not What is PAul doing?

Exeptions - исключения

like, love, want, know, understand, depend, prefer, hate, need, mean, believe, forget

Can and could (modal verbs)

Can we use in the present

Could we use in the past

Can - мочь, могу

Could - мог, смог

Subject + can / could (not) + infinitive

Could we use in a more polite way to ask somebody (smb) to do something (smth). Could мы используем в более вежливой форме попросить кого-то сделать что-то.

I can play the piano. Sarah couldn't come to the party.

Can / Could + subject + infinitive?

Can you swim?

me - мне, меня us - нас, нам you - тебе, тебя (вас, вам) him - его, ему her - ее, ей tham - их, им

Objective pronouns - Объектное местоимение

Для неодушевленного единственного числа мы используем личные - it, объектные - it. Для неодушевленного множественного числа личные - they, объектные - them.

I don't want this book. You can take it. I don't want these books. You can take them. Diana never drinks milk. She doesn't like it. I never go to parties. I don't like them.

We use objective pronouns after preposition. Мы используем объектные местоимения после предлогов.

This letter isn't for me. Why are you looking at her?

I have ... / I've got

positive structure Subject (I, we, you, they) + have (got) Subject (he, she, it) + has (got)

negative structure 1. Subject (I, we, you, they) + haven't got Subject (he, she, it) + hasn't got 2. Subject (I, we, you, they) + don't have Subject (he, she, it) + doesn't have

questions structure 1. Have + subject (I, we, you, they) + got Has + subject (he, she, it) + got? 2. Do + (I, we, you, they) + have? Does + (he, she, it) + have?

I have a car. I have got a car. Tim has got two sisters. Tim has two sisters.

I haven't got a car. I don't have a car. He hasn't got a car. He doesn't have a car.

Have you got a car? Do you have a car? Has Ann got a car? Does Ann have a car?

Was / Were

Was / Were - we use in the past.

Was / Were - past form of to be ( am, is, are). Was / Were - прошедшая форма to be.

Subject (I, we, she, it) + was (not) Subject (we, you, they) + were (not) Was / were + subject?

I was tired last night. We were hungry after the journey, but we weren't tired. Was the weather good, when you were on holiday?

a / an and the

a / an - indefinite articles (неопределенный артикль) the - definite articl (определенный артикль)

I've got a car. I'm going to clean the car tomorrow.

We use the when we talk about something second time. Мы используем the, когда мы говорим о чём-то второй раз.

I bought a jacket and a shirt. The jacket was cheap but the shirt was expensive.

We use the when it is clear which thing or person we mean. Мы используем the, когда ясно какую вещь или человека мы имеем в виду.

there is, there are (есть)

There is we use with singular noun. Мы используем there is с существительными единственного числа.

There are we use with plural noun. Мы используем с существительными множественного числа.

There is a pen on the table. There are books on the shalf. Are there flowers in the garden? Is there a flower in the garden?

Would you like? I'd like ...

Would you like - тебе бы хотелось

We use when we offer (предлагаем) something.

I would like - I'd like or I'd love - Мне бы хотелось

Would you like some coffee? Yes, I'd like

Would you like to we use when we invite somebody to some were. Мы используем, когда мф приглашаем кого-то куда-то.

Would you like to go for a walk.

possessive pronouns - притяжательное местоимение

my - моё our - наш your - твой, ваш his - его her - её their - их its - его (для неодушевленного существительного)

We use its when something belongs to something. Мы используем its, когда что-то принаджлежит чему-то.

We use it's (it is) when we describe something or give our opinion. Мы используем it's (it is), когда описываем что-то или даём наше мнение.

When we use s at the end of possessive pronouns we don't use a noun after them. Когда мы используем s в конце притяжательного местоимения мы не используем существительное после них.

Is this your book? Is this book yours?

A friend of mine - one of my friends - один из моих друзей my friends - my close friend - мой близкий друг

Whose? - чей? We can use whose with or without a noun.

Subject + verb + object (дополненое) + time Subject + verb + place (место) + time

Past simple - прошедшое простое

We use Past simple tense for action wich happined in the past. Мы используем прошедшее простое время для действий, которые произошли в прошлом.

There are regular and irregular verbs. Есть правильный и неправильный глагол.

1. If the verb is regular we use -ed at the end of the verb. Если глагол правильный мы используем -ed в конце глагола.

2. If the verb is irregular we change it by root. Если глагол неправильный мы меняем его с корнем.

regular verbs: work - worked stay - stayed

irregular verbs: begin - bagan bresk - broke

Past simple negative and questions

Subject + didn't + infinitive

Did + subject + infinitive?

I didn't watch TV yesterday. Did you do the shopping?

a lot, much, many

a lot we use in all types of sentences (in positive, negative and questions). a lot мы используем со всеми видами предложений.

With countable and countable nouns. С исчисляемыми и неисчисляемыми существительное.

many в конце предложений не пишется.

many we use in positive, negative and questions sentences. many we use with countable nouns.

much we use in negative and questions sentences. much we use with uncountable nouns.

Did you buy much (a lot of) food? Did you buy many (a lot of) books?

must, mustn't, needn't - modal verbs

must - должен mustn't - недолжен needn't (don't need to) - ненужно, ненадо

subject + modal verbs + infinitive

I must clean the window. I musn't clean the window. I needn't clean the window. I don't need to clean the window.

I was doing Past continuons - прошедшее продолжительное

We use past continuons tense for unfinished actions which were happining at a articular time in the past. Мы используем прошедшее подолжительное время для незаконченных действий, которые происходили в определенное время в прошлом.

We show the middle of the action and definite time. Мы показываем середину действия и определенное время.

subject + was/ were (not) + verb + ing was /were + subject + verb + ing?

Past continuons - что делал? Past simple - что сделал?

at, on, in

in - через on New Year's Day, at New Year at the end of - в конце чего-то

etc. - et cetera [it setra] и т.д. / и так далее

should - modal verb

We use should when we give advise to somebody. Мы используем should, когда мы даём совет кому-то.

We often use should with the word think. Мы часто используем should со словом think.

should = ought to

You should watch the film. You ought to watch the film.

Usually, always ( wordorder 2)

every - когда-либо just - только что already - уже both - оба still - все ещё also - также, тоже

adverbs of frequency (фриквенси) - наречия частоты

1. subject + adv.of.freq. + main verb (главный)

2. subject + helping verb (вспомогательный) + adv.of.freq.

3. subject + helping verb + adv.of.freq. + main verb

1. I always go to work by car.

2. I'm never ill.

3. I will always remember you.

I have done

We use presen t perfect tense for actions wich happined in the past, with a result in the present. Мы используем настоящее совершен

Subject + have / has (not) + past participle

Have / Has + subject + past participle?

ное время для действий, которые произошли в прошлом, с результатом в настоящем.

In present perfect we don't show time. В настоящем совершенном мы непоказываем время.

I have lost my pasport. She has gone to bed. we haven't bought a car. Where has he gone? Have you finished reading this book?

I've just ... I've already I haven't ... yet - ещё, хуже

Just and already we use in the middle of positive sentences.

Yet we use at the end of negative and questions sentences.

in negative yet - ещё in questions yet - уже

Subject + have / has (всп.гл.) + just / already + past participle

They have just arrived. I have just had dinner. They have already arrived. They haven't arrived yet. Have Diana and PAul arrived yet? Yes, they have.

Have you ever ...?

He's gone to Spain ( he is in Spain now).

He has been to Spain ( he went to Spain but now he is back)

Present continuons / Present simple

We use present continuons tense for the future when we know exactly that we will do something. Мы используем настоящее продолжительное время для будущего, когда мы знаем точно, что мы сделаем что-то.

Andrew is playing tennis tomorrow.

We use present simple for the future when we talk about timetable, programmes etc. Мы используем настоящее простое для будущего, когда мы говорим о расписаниях, программах и т.д.

When it's not our opinion. Когда это ненаше мнение. The concert starts at 7.30.

I'm going to ...

going to - собирать

We use to be going to when we dicided to do something. Мы используем to be going to, когда мы решили сделать что-то.

Subject + to be (not) + going to + infinitive

To be + subject + going to + infinitive?

Sarah is going to sell her car. What are you going to wear to night?

I used to ...

used to - бывало

We use used to to in the past.

Subject + used to + infinitive

Subject didn't + use to + infinitive

Did + subject + use to + infinitive

When I was a child, I used to like chocolate. When I was a child, I didn't use to like chocolate. Where did you use to live five years ago?

past simple / perfect

When we show a time its past simple. (прошедшее простое)

When we don't show a time its perfect. (совершенное)

How long have you ...? - present perfect

We use present perfect continuonce tense for actions with began in the past, and haven't finished yet. Мы используем настоящее совершенное продолжительное время для действий, которые начались в прошлом и незакончились ещё.

Work and leave we can use in present perfect simple and in present perfect continuons tenses.

key words: how long, for - в течение, since - с тех пор

When we meet verbs wich we cannot use in present perfect continuons tense we use then in present perfect simple tense. Когда мы встречаем глаголы, которые мы не можем использовать в настоящем совершенном продолжительном времени мы используем их в настоящем совершенном простом времени.

How long have you known her?

Subject + have / has (not) + been + verb + ing

Have / has + subject + been + verb + ing?

I have know her for two years.

1. How long have you been living in Baku? I have been living in Baku since December.

2. How long have you lived in Baku? I have lived in Baku sence December. How long has he been working in a bank? He has been working in benk for 5 years.

might (возможно, может быть) - modal verb

We use might when something is possible to happen. Мы используем когда что-то может случиться.

Subject + might (not) + infinitive

might = may - in positive and negative sentences.

may = can - in questions sent.

I might not go to work tomorrow. I might go to cinema this evening.

May I ask question? Can I ask question?

for, since, ago - тому назад

We use ago in past simple. Мы используем ago прошедшее простое время

After the words when and what time we use past simple. После слов when and what time мы используем прошедшее простое.

When did Tom go out? He went ten minutes ago. What time did Jill arrive in Baku? She arrived in Baku two weeks ago.

will, shall - modal verb

We use will, shall when deside to do something at the time of speaking. Мы используем will, shall, когда мы решаем сделать что-то во время разговора.

In modern English we don't use shall in positive and negative senten. В современном английском мы не используем shall в положительных и отрицательных предложениях.

We use shall with subject. I and we use shall in questions when we want to ask somebody's opinion or advice. Мы используем shall в вопросах, когда мы хотим спросить кого-то мнения или совет.

Subject + will (not) or won't + infinitive

Will/ Shall + subject + infinitive?

I think I will go to bed early today. Shall I open the window? What time shall we meet?

There was / were There has / have been There will be

There was /were we use when something existed somewhere in the past. There was /were мы используем, когда что-то существовало где-то в прошлом.

There has / have been we use when something existed somewhere in the past, but a result in the present. There has / have been мы используем когда что-то существовало где-то в прошлом с результатом в настоящем.

There will be we use when something will exist somewhere in the future. There will be мы используем, когда что-то будет существовать где-то в будущем.

There was a good film on TV last night. Were there letters for me yesterday? Look there has been an accident. There will be many people at the party. Will you be at hte party tomorrow.

passive voice - страдательный залог

We use passive voice when we don't know who does the action. Мы используем страдательный залог, когда мы не знаем, кто совершает действие.

1. Present simple passive Subject + to be + past partisiple The room is cleaned everyday.

2. Past simple passive Subject + to be (was, were) + past participle The room was cleaned yesterday.

3. Present continuons passive Subject + to be + being + past participle The room is being cleaned now.

4. Past continuons passive Subject + to be + being + past participle The room was being cleaned at 3 o'clock yesterday.

5. Present perfect passive Subject + have / has + been + past participle The room has been cleaned.

6. Future passive Subject + will + be + past participle The room will be cleaned tomorrow.

We use by at the end of sentencens when we want to show who does the actions. Мы используем by в конце предложения, когда мы хотим показать кто совершает действие.

The telephone was invented by Alexsander Bell.

Is it ...? Have you ...? Do they ...?

After word why we can use negative.

Why isn't he here? Why can't Paula come to the party?

Countable / Uncountable noun - исчисляемое / неисчисляемое существительное

With uncountable nouns some is translate like "немного". С неисчисляемыми существительными some переводится как "немного".

With countable nouns some is translate like "несколько". С исчисляемыми существительными some переводится как "несколько".

some milk - немного молока some apples - несколько яблок

uncountable (paper - бумага) countable (a paper - газета) some paper - немного бумаги a piece of paper - кусочек бумаги a piece of advice - один совет two pieces of advice - 2 совета one loaf of bread - один хлеб two loaves of bread - 2 хлеба work - uncountable job - countable


We use it when we talk about time, day, wesather, disdance. Мы используем it когда мы говорим о времени, днях, погоде, расстоянии.

It's four o'clock now. It's Thursday today. It's raining.

A long way we use in positive sentensence. Far we use in negative and questions.

It is a long way from here to school. It isn't far from here to school. Is it far from here to school?

my self / your self / them selves - reflexive pronouns (возратные местоимения)

help your self - угощайся by myself = alone (один) She went to the party by herself (alone). He cut himself with knife. each other - друг друга We know each other very well.cc

's / of

When something belongs to somebody we use 's. Когда что-то принадлежит кому-то мы используем 's.

When something belongs to something we use of. Когда что-то принадлежит чему-то мы используем of.

Are you going to Jam's party? We didn't see begin of the film. What is name of this villag?

Have you? Are you? Don't you? - disjuncture questions - разделительные вопросы

1. positive - positive / negative - negative | правда?

2. positive - negative / negative - positive | не так ли?

I'm writing a book. Are you? I don't love Ceorge. Don't you? I was ill last week. Were you? It's a beatiful day, isn't it? Sally lives in London, doesn't she?

too /either so am I / neither do I

too / either we use at the end of sentences, too in positive either in negative.

so / neither we use in the begining of sentences so in positive neither in negative.

I enjoyed the flm. I enjoyed too. So did I. I can't cook. I can't either. Neither can I.

Neither = Nor

I have to

We use have to when we are oblijed to do something, it's not our opinion and it doesn't depend on us. Мы используем have to, когда мы обязаны сделать что-то это не наше мнение и это независит от нас.

We use must when we give our opinion and it depend on us. Мы используем must, когда мы даем наше мнение и это зависит от нас.

We also use have to for our opinions too. Past four have to - had to. I have to go to the dentist. I had to go to the shop yesterday.

Who saw you? Who did you see?

When we don't know who does the action we don't use helping verbs. Когда мы незнаем кто совершает действие мы нетспользуем вспомогательный глагол.

When we know who does the action we use helping verbs.

Who did you meet yesteerday? Who likes oranges?

Who is she talking to? What is it like?

In question begining who...? what...? where ...? which...? prepositions (to / from / with etc.) usually go at the end.

What is it like? - какое оно? (на что это похоже?) Where are you from? What was afraid of? What is your teacher like?

the same - один и тот же, тот же самый

What ...? Which ...? How...?

What we use when we talk about something ingeneral.

Which we use when we give a choice. (выбор)

After what and which we use nouns. After how we use adjective (прилагательное) and adverbs (наречия).

What colour is your car? Which is the longest river - Missisippi, The Amazon or the Nile?

How long does it take - Как долго это занимает (времени)

How long + does / did / will + it take + object + to ...?

It + takes / took / will take + object + time + to ...?

We use be with prepositions in and at.

She said that ... / He told me that ... - reported speach (косвенная речь)

We are going to buy a house.

Sarah and Tim said that they were going to buy a house.

to / -ing

1. If two verbs come after each other we use to between them. Если два глагола идут один за другим мы используем to между ними.

2. If two verbs come after each other we use -ing at the end of the second verb.

I want you to ... / I told you to ... - complex object (сложное дополнение)

Subject +verb + object + to + infinitive

I told you to be carefully.

After make and let we don't use to.

She let me use her computer.

let - позволять let's - давай


We use the when we talk about something ingeneral.

We don't use the with languages, games, sports, subjects (предметы).

I went to the shop to ...

to () + verb

for + noun

I went to the shop to buy a newspaper.

I went to the shop for a newspaper.

wait for somebody, somethibg wait to do something wait for somebody / something / to do something


Get has several meanings. Get имеет несколько значений: receive, buy, fetch, become, arrive.

Get married - выходить замуж, жениться Get dressed - одеваться Get lost - потеряться Get hungry - проголодаться Get cold - простудиться Get tried - уставать Get in a car - входить в машину такси Get out of a car - выходить из машины такси Get on a bus - входить в автобус Get off a bus - выходить из автобуса

Get on and get off use with other transports too.

in, at, on

at the top of the page - на верху страницы

at the bottom of the page - внизу страницы

in, at, on

in a photograph - на фотографии in a picture - на картине on the way - попути

to, at, in

arrive = get

arrive in, at

We use arrive in with countrys, towns. We use arrive at with other places.

do and make

Do we use when we do some action.

make - produce (производить), create (создавать)

make a film - снимать фильм take a photograph - фотографировать


If have is in the meaning of possess we don't use -ing at the end of it. Если have в значении иметь мы не используем -ing в конце него.

one / ones

We use one and ones in order not to repeat a noun second time. Мы используем one и ones в порядке неповторять существительное второй раз.

One - singular Ones - plural

What hotel did you stay at? The one opposite the station.

above - над, below - под, by - около


Comporative form - Сравнительная формв

big - bigger healthy - healthier

The box A is smaller than the box B.

beatiful - more beautiful

Superlative - Превосходная (the -est)

the biggest the healthiest the most beautiful the box C is the biggest

Сравнительная / Превосходная
Сравнительная Превосходная
goodbetterthe best
farfurtherthe furthest
badworsethe worst


The are careful drivers.

careful + ly = carefully

They drive carefully.

Прилагательное Наречие
Автор страницы и текста: Сабина Рамисовна @ramis_ovna
Уникальные посетители Free Visitor Counters
Карта сайта